The Power Partners commitment to manufacture quality distribution transformers is backed by a series of transformer tests used to verify conformance to performance characteristics outlined in the latest revisions of ANSI C57.12.00 and ANSI C57.12.90. These identified tests are also part of the Quality System which is audited annually by an accredited third party auditor to the ISO Standards.


Factory tests are performed on a transformer to confirm that it is properly designed and constructed to carry rated load and that it will withstand the conditions it will be exposed to in service.

Each transformer manufactured by Power Partners must undergo a series of tests:

  1. Polarity, Phase-Relation, and Ratio
  2. Applied Voltage Test of the HV
  3. Applied Voltage Test of the LV
  4. Induced Voltage Test
  5. No-Load (Excitation) Loss and Excitation Current
  6. Circuit Breaker Test (for CSP transformers only)
  7. Impedance Voltage and Load Loss
  8. Full Wave Impulse
  9. Continuity Check

Test Facilities
The multi-station, automated test facilities are operated by process control computers. Required interaction with test floor personnel is minimal with the computers initiating and monitoring each test, and then analyzing the test results feedback. The computers are programmed to conduct tests according to ANSI standards, and according to the ratings of each transformer style, the test floor computers will initiate appropriate test setups, compare results with established ANSI standard limits, and determine acceptance for each tested unit.

The test results for each unit are recorded and stored on computer files for access and analysis.

Polarity, Phase-Relation, and Ratio Tests
These tests verify proper phase-relation (three phase), ratio, and polarity (single phase) of the transformer under test. To pass, a unit must demonstrate the proper polarity or phase-relation and have a turns ratio within one-half of one percent of the nominal voltage ratio.

Applied Voltage Test of the HV
This test checks the dielectric integrity of insulation structures between the high voltage and low voltage, and between the high voltage and ground. A pass/fail decision is made by monitoring the test current intensity. If the resulting current is larger than specified normal leakage and capacitive currents, the unit is rejected. This test is omitted for transformers with a permanently grounded high voltage winding.

Applied Voltage Test of LV
This dielectric test is similar to the Applied Voltage test of the high voltage circuitry except that the integrity of insulation structures between the low voltage and the high voltage, and between the low voltage and ground is checked. A pass-fail decision is made by monitoring the test current intensity. If the resulting current is larger than specified normal leakage and capacitive current, the unit is rejected.

Induced Voltage Test
The principal purpose of this test is to verify the dielectric strength of turn to turn, layer to layer, phase to phase, and other insulation structures within the transformer windings by inducing an overvoltage condition (at higher than normal frequency to avoid saturation of the core). The test current is monitored, and if it exceeds limits specified for each transformer, the unit is rejected.

No-Load Loss and Excitation Current
This test measures the no-load (excitation) loss and the transformer exciting current with rated voltage applied. If the exciting current and/or the no-load loss exceed the limits specified, the transformer is rejected. Circuit Breaker Test (for CSP transformers only) This test verifies the proper operation of the low voltage circuit breaker under fault conditions. The breaker is required to operate within a specified time under a simulated fault.

Impedance Voltage and Load Loss
This test measures the load loss and the impedance voltage at rated current. The load loss and the impedance voltage must be within specified limits.

Full Wave Impulse
The impulse test is one of several tests designed to verify the dielectric strength of the many insulation structures within the distribution transformer against line voltage surges. It is performed to comply with ANSI standards and for quality assurance. The change in the ANSI standard in 1993 required all manufacturers to install fault detection sensitive enough to detect a single turn short.

Continuity Check
This test is performed on all transformers to verify transformer circuit and component integrity. This test is performed with an ohmmeter to verify that the internal wiring is correct.

The transformer’s nameplate is compared to manufacturing information for style, serial number, kVA, HV rating, LV rating, tap voltages, impedance, conductor materials and coil BIL rating. The bushings, electrical accessories, and fuses are verified.

Special Tests

Some tests are performed at the option of the customer.

Sound Testing
ANSI standards define the required sound levels for transformer but some customers specify reduced sound levels. The sound generated by a transformer is affected by the core geometry, flux density, tank design, and the quality of assembly of all the transformer components into a completed unit. Sound tests are made with the unit powered at 100% and 110% of rated voltage under no-load conditions.

Temperature Tests
Core losses and coil losses are the primary sources of heating within the transformer. Our transformers are guaranteed to have an average coil winding temperature of no more than 65 C rise over ambient air temperature when operated at rated voltage and load conditions. The temperature test is performed to determine the thermal characteristics of the transformer and to verify that they are within design limits.


Test equipment is calibrated on a scheduled basis by trained technicians. Calibration records are maintained in accordance with the Quality System procedures. These are audited semi-annually by DNV in accordance with ISO.


Short Circuit Withstand Capabilities

Distribution transformers are subjected to external short circuits on the secondary side. Such external faults can develop on the service line, in the house wiring or in connected loads due to numerous environmental reasons. These faults can be line-to-ground, double line-to ground or line-to-line.

To meet these operating conditions, the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) has set standards concerning short circuit withstand capability. These standards require that distribution transformers shall be designed and constructed to withstand the mechanical and thermal stresses produced by these external short circuits.

The current standards relating to short circuit strength are ANSI C57.12.00 which sets the short circuit withstand requirements for distribution transformers and ANSI C57.12.90 which provides procedures for short circuit testing.

For distribution transformers, the magnitude of the short circuit current, the numbers of short-circuit tests and the duration of each short circuit test are defined by ANSI standards as follows.

A. Magnitude

Category Single Phase kVA Three Phase kVA Capability*
I 5-25 15-75 40
37.5-100 112.5-300 35
167-500 500 25
II 750-2500 1/Z T**
* Base current (Symmetrical) per unit for all distribution transformers with secondary rated 600 V and below.
** The short circuit current will be limited by the transformer impedance only.

B. Number of Tests
Each phase of the transformer shall be subjected to a total of six tests, four with symmetrical fault currents and two with asymmetrical fault currents.

C. Duration of Short Circuit Tests
When short circuit tests are performed the duration of each test shall be 0.25 s except that one test satisfying the symmetrical current requirement shall be made for a longer duration on distribution transformers. The duration of the long test in each case shall be as follows:

Category I:


Where T is the duration in seconds,

And I=Isc/IR=symmetrical short circuit current, in multiples of normal base current except I shall not exceed the maximum symmetrical current magnitudes listed in A.

Where Isc=IR/ZT=symmetrical short circuit current, in rms amperes

IR=rated current on the given tap connection, in rms amperes

ZT=transformer impedance on the given tap connection in per unit on the same apparent power base as IR

Category II:

T=1.0 second

Criteria of Satisfactory Performance
According to ANSI Standards a unit is considered to have passed the test if it passes a visual inspection and dielectric tests. Recommended additional checks include examination of wave shape of terminal voltage and current, leakage impedance measurement and excitation current test. (Refer to ANSI C57.12.90.)

The standard allows the following variations in the leakage impedance:

ZT (Per Units) Percentage Variation
0.0299 or less 22.5-500 (ZT)
0.0300 or more 7.5

ZT=per unit impedance of the transformer.

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